Like onshore, offshore wind turbine blades spin from the force of wind (turning it into mechanical energy), which is then converted into electrical energy. Parts of the wind turbine work together, including the blades, which connect to the nacelle (the part between the tower and blades), which houses a generator, drive train, gearbox and brake, among other components. The blades are shaped and pitched specifically to maximize the amount of wind they capture.
Offshore wind turbines differ from onshore wind turbines mostly with size and how they are supported. These turbines are not limited to the same land size or height constraints as those onshore; they can be significantly higher than onshore turbines – even double. Generation capacity grows significantly as the towers become higher and the blade longer.
Larger towers are required for deeper water, along with strong bases to support them. Floating offshore turbines are also becoming increasingly common in other countries.
Once the wind energy has been converted into electricity, underwater cables send electricity to an offshore substation which helps stabilize the electricity, and then onto an onshore substation where it can be connected to the grid or used directly to produce clean hydrogen.